Virtuelle Maschinen automatisch unter Ubuntu starten und suspenden

1. Methode mit vmware-Workstation

Neues Bashscript anlegen:

sudo vi /etc/init.d/start_stop_vm

Folgendes Script einfügen und an seine Gegebenheiten anpassen:

```bash
#! /bin/sh
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          Startet automatisch die VMs
# Required-Start:
# Required-Stop:
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: VMs
# Description:       Vms
### END INIT INFO
# Author: Name <info@meinserver.de>

# Aktionen
case "$1" in
    start)
        vmrun start "/pfad/zur/vm/meinevm.vmx" nogui
         ;;
    stop)
        vmrun suspend "/pfad/zur/vm/meinevm.vmx" nogui
      ;;
    restart)
        vmrun start "/pfad/zur/vm/meinevm.vmx" nogui
        ;;
esac

exit 0

Unter “start)”, “stop)” und “restart)” können auch mehrere VMs aufgelistet werden! Script speichern und Rechte setzen:

sudo chmod 755 /etc/init.d/start_stop_vm

Man könnte jetzt manuell das Script in die einzelnen Runlevel verlinken, jedoch gibt es dafür ein nützliches Tool Namens update-rc:

update-rc.d start_stop_vm defaults 99 01

Erklärung: 99 –> soll als letztes gestartet werden 01 –> soll als erstes gekillt werden

2. Methode mit VirtualBox<

Neues Bashscript anlegen:

sudo vi /etc/init.d/start_stop_vbox

Folgendes Script einfügen und an seine Gegebenheiten anpassen:

#! /bin/sh
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          Startet automatisch die VMs
# Required-Start:
# Required-Stop:
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: VMs
# Description:       Vms
### END INIT INFO
# Author: Name <info@meinserver.de>

# Aktionen
case "$1" in
    start)
        vboxmanage startvm [Name virtuelle Maschine] --type headless
         ;;
    stop)
        vboxmanage controlvm [Name virtuelle Maschine] savestate
      ;;
    restart)
        vboxmanage startvm [Name virtuelle Maschine] --type headless
        ;;
esac

exit 0<

Erweitertes Script (Autor Brendan Kidwell) mit Status und Co:

#! /bin/sh
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          virtualbox-!!SHORTNAME
# Required-Start:    $local_fs $remote_fs vboxdrv vboxnet
# Required-Stop:     $local_fs $remote_fs
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: !!LONGNAME virtual machine
# Description:       !!LONGNAME virtual machine hosted by VirtualBox
### END INIT INFO

# Author: Brendan Kidwell <brendan@glump.net>
#
# Based on /etc/init.d/skeleton from Ubuntu 8.04. Updated for Ubuntu 9.10.
# If you are using Ubuntu <9.10, you might need to change "Default-Stop"
# above to "S 0 1 6".

# Do NOT "set -e"

# PATH should only include /usr/* if it runs after the mountnfs.sh script
PATH=/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin
DESC="virtuelle maschine"
NAME=start_stop_vbox
SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME

MANAGE_CMD=VBoxManage
VM_OWNER=root
VM_NAME="win7x64" #This has to be the name exactly as it appears in your VirtualBox GUI control panel.

# Read configuration variable file if it is present
[ -r /etc/default/$NAME ] && . /etc/default/$NAME

# Load the VERBOSE setting and other rcS variables
[ -f /etc/default/rcS ] && . /etc/default/rcS

# Define LSB log_* functions.
# Depend on lsb-base (>= 3.0-6) to ensure that this file is present.
. /lib/lsb/init-functions

#
# Function that starts the daemon/service
#
do_start()
{
    # Return
    #   0 if daemon has been started
    #   1 if daemon was already running
    #   2 if daemon could not be started

    sudo -H -u $VM_OWNER $MANAGE_CMD showvminfo "$VM_NAME"|grep "^State:\s*running" >/dev/null && {
        echo "$VM_NAME" is already running.
        return 1
    }

    sudo -H -u $VM_OWNER $MANAGE_CMD startvm "$VM_NAME" -type vrdp >/dev/null || {
        echo Failed to start "$VM_NAME".
        return 2
    }

    date >> /var/log/vboxlog
    echo "$VM_NAME" started or resumed.
    return 0
}

#
# Function that stops the daemon/service
#
do_stop()
{
    # Return
    #   0 if daemon has been stopped
    #   1 if daemon was already stopped
    #   2 if daemon could not be stopped
    #   other if a failure occurred

    sudo -H -u $VM_OWNER $MANAGE_CMD showvminfo "$VM_NAME"|grep "^State:\s*running" >/dev/null || {
        echo "$VM_NAME" is already stopped.
        return 1
    }

    sudo -H -u $VM_OWNER $MANAGE_CMD controlvm "$VM_NAME" savestate || {
        echo Failed to stop "$VM_NAME".
        return 2
    }

    date >> /var/log/vboxlog
    echo "$VM_NAME" suspended.
    return 0
}

#
# Display "State" field from showinfo action
#
do_status()
{
    sudo -H -u $VM_OWNER $MANAGE_CMD showvminfo "$VM_NAME"|grep "^State:\s*.*$"
}

case "$1" in
  start)
    [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_daemon_msg "Starting $DESC" "$NAME"
    do_start
    echo "start vm"
    case "$?" in
        0|1) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 0 ;;
        2) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 1 ;;
    esac
    ;;
  stop)
    [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_daemon_msg "Stopping $DESC" "$NAME"
    do_stop
    echo "stop vm"
    case "$?" in
        0|1) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 0 ;;
        2) [ "$VERBOSE" != no ] && log_end_msg 1 ;;
    esac
    ;;
  restart|force-reload)
    #
    # If the "reload" option is implemented then remove the
    # 'force-reload' alias
    #
    echo restarting
    log_daemon_msg "Restarting $DESC" "$NAME"
    do_stop
    case "$?" in
      0|1)
        do_start
        case "$?" in
            0) log_end_msg 0 ;;
            1) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Old process is still running
            *) log_end_msg 1 ;; # Failed to start
        esac
        ;;
      *)
        # Failed to stop
        log_end_msg 1
        ;;
    esac
    ;;
  status)
    do_status
    ;;
  *)
    echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|restart|force-reload|status}" >&2
    exit 3
    ;;
esac<

Script speichern und Rechte setzen:

sudo chmod 755 /etc/init.d/start_stop_vbox

Man könnte jetzt manuell das Script in die einzelnen Runlevel verlinken, jedoch gibt es dafür ein nützliches Tool Namens update-rc:

sudo update-rc.d start_stop_vbox defaults 99 01

Erklärung siehe 1. Um den Spaß wieder aus den Runlevels zu entfernen, folgendes eingeben:

update-rc.d –f [SCRIPTNAME] remove